In a metalworking lathe, metal is removed from the work piece using a hardened cutting tool, which is usually fixed to a solid moveable mounting, either a tool-post or a turret, which is then moved against the work piece using hand wheels and/or computer controlled motors.
These (cutting) tools come in a wide range of sizes and shapes depending upon their application. Some common styles are diamond, round, square and triangular.
Vertical Milling Machines
In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill.
Pedestal Drilling Machines
This range of machines incorporate all geared heads, fully immersed in oil, and are designed for heavy duty, long life operation.
The bench drill is a smaller version of the pillar drill. This type of machine drill is used for drilling light weight pieces of material.